Projects of Chinese Polar scientific research
China began its comprehensive Antarctic scientific research in 1991, which was a five year period plan running from 1991 to 1995. The plan, as called ¡°China Eighth Five-Year Antarctic Scientific Projects¡± , mainly included subjects as followings:
1).The research on the resource of krill in Southern Ocean and its utilization
2).The research on ecosystem in Fildes Peninsula and nearby.
3).The research on structure ,formation, evolvement and geodynamics about lithosphere in Antarctica
4).The research on the climate and environment evolvement and modern environmental background in Antarctica.
5).The research on Interaction between Antarctica and global change
6).The research on Solar-terrestrial behavior in Antarctica
7).The research on the Antarctic environmental effect on human psychological and physical functions.
From 1996 to 2000, China implemented its Ninth five-year Antarctic research projects -Key Project Research on the effect and feedback of the Antarctic Region on the Global Change.
The overall goal of the projects is to quantitatively describe the basic processes of interaction between the major environmental factors of ocean/sea ice-atmosphere-ice and snow/terrestrial ecosystem in the eastern area of East Antarctica in order to reveal their role in the global change, as well as establishing a assessment model for the impact of the Antarctic systems on global change.
The projects included mainly 7 sub-projects :
1). The research on the physical process of interaction between ocean/sea ice and atmosphere in the Southern Ocean
2). The research on the dynamic changes of ecosystems and the biogeochemistry of carbon in the Southern Ocean
3).The research on the impact of the Antarctic atmosphere and spatial physical process on the global change
4). The research on the response and feedback of the modern natural interface environmental process in the Antarctic station area to the global change
5). The research on the climatic environment records within snow and ice as well as ice sheet change in East Antarctica
6).The research on the tectonic evolution of lithosphere in the Larsemann Hills since the late Proterozoic Era and its environmental implications
7). The research on the interactions of ocean-atmosphere-ice and snow-biological spheres in China¡¯s Antarctic research areas.
Arctic scientific research
In 1999, China made the national Arctic expedition for the first cruise, working in the areas of the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, responding to the IASC priorities. A variety of scientific programs were implemented to understand:
1). Probing into the role of the ¡°Arctic in the global change and its impact on the climate in China.
2). The variability impact of the water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and North Pacific on the North Pacific circulation.
3). Effect of the ecosystems and living resources in the sea area adjacent to the Arctic Ocean on the development of China¡¯s fishery.
In 2003, the 2nd Arctic cruse survey was carried in the same area, which focused on the following subjects:
1).Variability mechanism of Arctic circulation, water structure and exchange.
2).Process of Arctic sea ice change and its influence to the air/sea exchange.
3).Carbon flux in the upper Arctic Ocean and the land-source matters influence to the Arctic Ocean.
4).Interaction between the north Pacific and the Arctic Oceans.
5).Mechanism of Arctic climate variability and its influence to the climate in China.
6).The geobiochemical processes and past environment survey in the Arctic Ocean.
7).Interactions between biological and Physical processes of the oceans in the north high latitudes
After the establishment of Yellow River Station in 2004 in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard,some scientific projects has been conducted. The projects in 2006 mainly included:
1).The monitoring and studies of glaciers around Ny-Alesund, Svalbard
2).Arctic GPS application research and information system construction in Yellow River Station
3).Investigation of the ionospheric scintillations in Arctic region
4).Observational research on the physical processes of boundary layer over the tundra of the Arctic
5).Biology, ecology and environmental changes in Arctic region
6).Eco-geological investigations in the ice-free area of Arctic
7).Monitoring and assessing of atmospheric environment around Ny-Alesund, Svalbard
8).The structure and function of Plankton community in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard
9). Construction of the species pool of non-and lichenized ascomycetes and algae from Kongsfjorden and its adjacent land
10).Over winter observation of Aurora with the 3-wavelength-CCD-all ¨Csky-imager system